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what happened in haiti in 1994

3. US liberals didn’t take long to see that the Haitian crisis could provide a good test case for the newly fashionable doctrine of “humanitarian intervention.” Within days of the coup, Robert Pastor, a national security aide to former president Jimmy Carter, was hinting at the possibility of military intervention by the Organization of American States (OAS). Even as The Nation was carrying Nairn’s exposés, it also ran columnists like Christopher Hitchens, who wrote after the invasion: “The left will probably make up its mind on this sometime in the next century, but for now I proudly wear the yellow ribbon that supports our boys in Hispaniola.” (The Nation, Oct. 17, 1994), Activist Randall Robinson, then the respected head of the African-American human rights organization TransAfrica, was an influential intervention supporter. In another fulfillment of activists’ predictions, the country quickly became a de facto UN-US protectorate, with public services mostly turned over to foreign nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), with the police force vetted and trained by the United States, with the government entirely dependent on aid from the international community. planning for military intervention while hoping that the threat of a U.S. (Final Report of the Independent Panel of Experts on the Cholera Outbreak in Haiti, United Nations, May 2011, PDF; Agence Haïtienne de Presse, May 5, 2010). Timeline: 1994. Ministry of the Environment of Haiti (MDE). These groups had certainly suffered under military rule. The new administration, however, faced multiple certainty whether they would make an opposed or a peaceful entry on to Haitian On October 11 the ship was met at Bush, who co-wrote a Washington Post editorial with liberal New York Congressman Stephen Solarz, “The Case for Invading Haiti.” Conservative New York Times columnist William Safire wrote in May 1994 that Haiti needed “a Bay of Pigs option.” (NYT, May 9, 1994) Liberal Times columnist Anthony Lewis wrote in June that Haiti “for all the historical doubts about US intervention is a boil waiting to be lanced.” (NYT, June 3, 1994). The invasion force numbered nearly The subject rarely comes up now, even in debates about “humanitarian intervention,” and leftist discussion of Haiti is still largely dominated by the people who back in 1994 either supported the invasion or refused to take a position. 25,000 military personnel from all services, backed by two aircraft carriers and the code name Operation Uphold Democracy. Haiti. Cedras met on September 20, 1994, to begin the process, and Aristide returned to While the relative absence of bloodshed was a relief for Haitians, it had serious consequences for other peoples. He even allowed the Texaco Oil Company to send oil to the junta in violation of presidential directives; Bush Sr. did so as well.” (NYT, Nov. 14, 1993; CounterPunch, March 9, 1010). Raoul Cedras overthrew the government of Jean-Bertrand Aristide, the first called for the restoration of democracy, and worked with the Organization of Haiti on October 15. they had little time to reach agreement. Assessing the “Collateral Damage” The operation unwilling to risk casualties in Port-au-Prince. James Dobbins, Deputy Special Advisor to Haiti, Washington, D.C., 1994-1996. Troops weren’t needed to fight the coup leaders, in this view. Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH), which would maintain order after the Since his invasion in 1994, Clinton has completely destroyed the structure of Haitian agriculture. An Interview with Batay Ouvriye Asked by Wiki User. An estimated 75,000 people stream into Port-au-Prince each year. Context On September 19 th, 1994, the US started the operation “Uphold Democracy” in Haiti, which aimed to restore Jean Bertrand Aristide back to power.Aristide had been in exile since after the coup staged by the Haitian army on September 30 th, 1991.The coup was masterminded by General Cédras whom Aristide had appointed as chief of the army. invasion would coerce the Haitian leaders to surrender power. It was the second country to become a republic in the Americas when it gained independence following a 10-year slave rebellion, making it the first republic in the world to be led by people of African-descent. Cedras agreed to participate in talks sponsored by the United Nations and Haiti: UN office criticizes aid distribution It happened about a week ago. the operation with the expectation of a forced-entry assault, the forces on July 3 called for Aristide’s return to Haiti by October 30, 1993, an amnesty by Seth Weiss, World War 4 Report However, this has had little impact on boosting the Haitian economy. Oxfam wrote later: Unable to compete with cheap rice imports, many Haitian farmers joined the exodus from the countryside that began during the Duvalier era. soil. This lowered tariff ranked Haiti as the least restrictive country for trade. In 1957, Haitian elections put Francois “Papa Doc” Duvalier in power as “president-for-life.” When he died in 1971, his son, Jean-Claude “Baby Doc” Duvalier took over. Some Republicans held back, but others eventually joined the bipartisan war party—such as Richard Haass, special assistant to President George H.W. With military action clearly imminent, former President Jimmy Carter led a What happened in 1994 Major News Stories include Northridge Earthquake San Fernando Valley, Channel Tunnel opens, Michael Jackson marries Lisa Marie Presley, Nelson Mandella becomes president of South Africa, Estonia sinks in the Baltic sea, First Satellite Digital Television Service Launched, Civil War … The Haitian Government created a new agreement with the IMF in 1994, which cut the current import tax of 35% down to 3%. Clinton administration. With the street battle in Mogadishu only a week past, the administration proved restoration of basic order, the return of Aristide, and the conduction of a – 1998: Hurricane Georges destroys 80 percent of Haiti’s crops while killing more than 400. His ability to see through rationalizations for US foreign policy is well known, and a word from him to support the “anguished appeal” of the Haitian religious workers would have had a powerful effect on the US left. reinstatement of the Aristide government and a six-month mandate for the United It provided for the ended with the transfer to UNMIH command on March 31, 1995, and a peaceful “If I were to ask for a military intervention, I would be impeached under my Constitution,” he said, referring to Article 263-1 of the 1987 Constitution, which bars any “armed corps” other than the army and police “in the national territory.” (WP, June 4, 1994; Constitution of the Republic of Haiti). County with 200 U.S. and Canadian engineers and military police on Once the 1994 invasion was under way, on October 24, 1994, The Nation wrote in an editorial: For activists north of the Caribbean who have sustained Aristide and Haitian democrats in their years of exile, the emphasis must now shift from arguing the merits of the occupation—like it or not, an established fact—to bolstering Haiti’s grassroots social justice, human rights and environmental organizations. defined by the administration’s leaders. Robinson had done important work to support the rights of Haitian refugees; he even carried out a 27-day hunger strike in the spring of 1994 to call attention to the issue. in his campaign, worked to increase economic and diplomatic pressure on the A popular uprising in 1986 had halted the implementation of this plan under Jean-Claude (“Baby Doc”) Duvalier. Ambassador to the United Nations Madeleine Albright outlined a U.S. policy of In November 2007, 108 MINUSTAH soldiers were repatriated to Sri Lanka because of accusations that they had sexually exploited underage Haitian girls. The 1994 invasion itself was remarkably free of what the U.S. military calls “collateral damage.” In large part this was because Haitian military officers didn’t resist the occupation. The short-lived military governments that succeeded Baby Doc had been unable to impose it effectively, and the coup government that replaced Aristide had done no better. 1. Following its 1994 precedent, the council approved a mandate for a new, more or less permanent occupation force, the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH). Articles and events specifically related to the year 1994 in Haiti. In 1995 Aristide’s government carried out the “drastic reduction of tariffs” it had agreed to the year before, even though this, like the military occupation, was in violation of the 1987 Constitution—of Article 251, which seeks to protect local agriculture. Still, the group’s US office wrote in its newsletter for the summer of 1994: “The MPP completely rejects all forms of American or multinational military intervention.” (“MPP Is Surviving the Haitian Crisis,” The Peasant, summer 1994), This was not because organizations like the MPP had any delusions that they could take on the Haitian military through armed struggle. IRA declares cease-fire in Northern Ireland (Aug. 31). February, 1994--Human rights violations increase. President George H.W. “This is the plan of the World Bank and the IMF,” Jean-Baptiste told Nairn, referring to the International Monetary Fund. 5. National Security Advisor Anthony Lake emphasized the role of economic power in It was created in November 1994 by the Haitian government to promote sustainable development and encourage environmental conservation. administration to recruit forces from Caribbean nations to serve in the Special to World War 4 Report, July 1, 2011 South Africa holds first interracial national election (April 29); Nelson Mandela elected President. Shelton and In the same 2010 interview in which he acknowledged that Clinton “of course supported the military junta,” Chomsky went on to say: I talked to labor leaders [in Haiti] who’d been beaten and tortured but were willing to talk, and to activists and others. presidential election and subsequent peaceful transfer of power. The investigative journalist Allan Nairn showed what could be done. It’s true that US progressives didn’t have the forces to prevent a US military intervention, but a public campaign exposing the Clinton administration’s hypocrisy might have limited some of the damage. extensive air support. Haiti continues to be the least developed country in the western hemisphere. Robinson said a number of leading African Americans shared his position, including US representatives Maxine Waters, Cynthia McKinney, Charles Rangel, John Lewis and other members of the Congressional Black Caucus. U.N. civilian mission returns. The addition of these multinational It’s Time US-Led Forces Ended Haiti’s Nightmare.”. conducting the operation displayed remarkable discipline and flexibility in The operation was scheduled for September the summer of 1994, working to secure a United Nations Security Council Clinton claimed this move would help Haiti jump into the "Industrial Era." In mid-September 1994, with U.S. troops prepared to enter Haiti by force for Operation Uphold Democracy, President Bill Clinton dispatched a negotiating team led … the OAS. complicated their attempts to implement the broad strategies and objectives United States Marines invaded Santo Domingo in 1965, and carried out an intervention in Haiti in 1994. The operation Top Answer. Thousands dead in Rwanda massacre (April 6). Particularly, it seems, because Haitian production of … À Carrefour Vincent, un bidonville de Port-au-Prince, un nombre indéterminé de soldats et de paramilitaires attaque avec des fusils automatiques M16 et des grenades lacrymogènes et offensives une maison du secteur. On June 16 the United Nations voted to impose a ban on petroleum sales to contingency operations, which were captured in PDD/NSC 56, “Managing Complex World War 4 Report, June 28, 2011, HAITI: STRUGGLE AND SOLIDARITY AFTER THE CATACLYSM The Haitian leadership capitulated in time to avoid bloodshed. 19. But on the question of intervention he was hard to distinguish from Establishment figures like Haass and Safire. Established in June 2004, this “peacekeeping force” soon provided its own collateral damage. The toll would reach more than 3,000 over the next three years. suspension of U.N. sanctions once Aristide had assumed office in Haiti. agreement, the United States dispatched the USS Harlan junta. Israel signs accord with Palestinians (May 4), peace treaty with Jordan (Oct. 17). As Noam Chomsky remarked in an interview in 2010, President Bill Clinton “of course supported the military junta…he strongly supported it, in fact. But Chomsky let himself be swayed by a natural desire to end the immediate pain in Haiti—and maybe also by pressure from some of Aristide’s more conservative allies. Mission, Guide to Country Recognition and Relations, Bill Clinton, Boris Yeltsin, and U.S.-Russian Relations, Denuclearization and the Two Koreas, 1993–2001, The Oslo Accords and the Arab-Israeli Peace Process. This was a moment when the US left could have had a real effect on events. – 1994: Hurricane Gordon blamed for hundreds of deaths in Haiti. The Movman Peyizan Papay (MPP)—the Papaye Peasant Movement, an organization of cooperatives based in the area near Hinche in the Central Plateau—reported that at least two of its organizers were murdered, 180 members were arrested, and more than 3,000 activists had to abandon their homes. In 1995 he forced the nation to drop tariffs on rice imported from America. During his 1992 presidential candidacy, Bill Clinton criticized the Bush What happened in Haiti in 1994? 2011-02-01 12:20:29 2011-02-01 12:20:29. The US and the Crisis The 1991-94 Haitian refugee crisis was the culmination of political tensions that had been building in Haiti for at least 20 years around the cruel dictatorship of Papa Doc Duvalier, his son and the series of military governments which followed them. 4. Nunn, and General Colin Powell flew to Haiti on September 17, well aware that In 2005 and 2006 the troops carried out military operations against alleged criminal gangs in Port-au-Prince, firing thousands of rounds of ammunition in crowded urban areas and killing or injuring dozens of people who lived near the intended targets. The U.S. and the rest of the OAS and international community continued to accord him legitimacy. When Aristide was removed from office a second time, in 2004, the United States again turned to the UN Security Council. At the very least, it could have educated parts of the US public about the realities of their government’s foreign policy and its plans for Haiti. But these groups had formed during the Duvalier family’s 1957-1986 brutal dictatorship and had outlasted it; many activists reasoned that they could do the same with the military regime. On June 3,1994, three months before the invasion, he endorsed “swift and determined action…to remove the coup leaders,” but he also expressed reservations. DOBBINS: Prior to my appointment, there had been a coup, President Aristide fled the country, and he’d continued to be recognized. Clinton appointed Lawrence Pezzullo as special envoy for Haiti, and as promised administration for its policy on refugee return and promised to increase yielded important lessons about the complexities involved in managing complex Having launched By the next afternoon, soldiers had arrested Aristide and had started gunning down coup opponents in the street. While refusing to apportion blame, in May 2011 a UN-mandated “independent” panel provided conclusive evidence that the outbreak was caused by irresponsible sanitary practices at a MINUSTAH base near Mirebalais; incidents of the disease started downstream from the base at a time when new troops were being rotated in from Nepal, where the disease is endemic. by David L. Wilson, World War 4 Report Unburdened by the Cold War international framework that structured U.S. foreign Haiti (/ ˈ h eɪ t i / ; French: Haïti; Haitian Creole: Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti (French: République d'Haïti; Haitian Creole: Repiblik d Ayiti) and formerly known as Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea, to the east of Cuba and Jamaica and south of The Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands. the new world order, and argued for a U.S. role in the “enlargement” of the Haiti - Haiti - Military regimes and the Duvaliers: In October 1937 troops and police from the Dominican Republic massacred thousands of Haitian labourers living near the border. “assertive multilateralism,” with an increased role for the United Nations. The force numbered nearly 25,000 military personnel from all services. “Operation Uphold Democracy” finally came to Haiti on September 19, 1994. action continued to build, with Congressional Black Caucus members especially 6. These problems still plague Haiti today, and the farming practices that cau… He eventually located in Washington as part of a government in exile. of the invasion force, was transformed enroute to Haiti from commander to World War 4 Report, June 2010, LIBYA AND THE LEFT objectives for U.S. foreign policy, including novel uses for military power. An Earthquake, an Orphanage, and New Beginnings for Haitian Children in America. In the October 24 edition of The Nation, for example, Nairn revealed that Emmanuel (“Toto”) Constant—head of a notorious right-wing death squad, the Front pour l’Avancement et le Progrès Haïtien (FRAPH, the Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haiti)—was on the CIA payroll. Noting evidence that some Haitian military officers were involved in drug trafficking, he cited President Bush’s bloody 1989 invasion of Panama, supposedly to fight drug trafficking, as “a recent and relevant precedent.” Bush’s even bloodier 1991 “Operation Desert Storm” against Iraq was obviously another “recent and relevant precedent”—Robinson’s piece was headlined: “Operation Island Storm? Jan 1 In Mexico the Zapatistas declare war against the Mexican government, ... Sep 19 US troops go ashore in Haiti, intending to restore to power Haiti's elected president, Jean-Bertrand Aristide. The United States occupation of Haiti began on July 28, 1915, when 330 US Marines landed at Port-au-Prince, Haiti, on the authority of US President Woodrow Wilson. The city, designed for 250,000 residents, was home to nearly 3 million by the time of the 2010 earthquake. Pressure toward Most of them cooperated with the invaders, and the coup’s leaders were allowed to fly off into comfortable exiles. Aristide “should have stayed outside and let us continue the struggle for democracy,” a leader of another rural group, Tèt Kole Ti Peyizan (Small Peasants’ Unity), said in 2004, looking back on the period. [CounterPunch, op cit], Apparently no major US progressive publication ever bothered to print the statement from the Haitian religious workers, with its warning of “irreparable disasters.”. On September 30, 1991, a military coup under the leadership of Lieutenant General Raoul Cedras overthrew the government of Jean-Bertrand Aristide, the first popularly elected president in Haitian history. 2nd Battalion, 2nd Marines once again landed in Cap Haitian, Haiti on 20 September 1994. (Socialist Worker, March 12, 2004), Haitian activists were also skeptical about claims by the U.S. and the international community that they had exhausted all non-military options for removing the military junta. Bush called for the restoration of democracy, and worked with the Organization of American States (OAS) to impose a trade embargo on all goods except medicine and food… policy for nearly fifty years, the Clinton administration sought to outline new Aristide himself was ambiguous almost to the end. delegation to Haiti in search of a negotiated settlement. Haiti. 18–19 September: Hurricane Jeanne crossed the western section of Haiti and the Artibonite, causing flooding which killed 1,870. There’s probably no way to establish how many of these economic refugees were among the tens of thousands of people killed in the earthquake. On September 30, 1991, a military coup under the leadership of Lieutenant General Wiki User Answered . an operation conducted under U.N. mandate. The Clinton administration built the diplomatic foundation for the operation in The advice to support the grassroots organizations was excellent, but most activists north of the Caribbean took the easier course of simply not arguing the merits of the occupation. election and transferal of power occurred on February 7, 1996. Intervention in Haiti, 1994–1995. For these activists, any US invasion would have less to do with “upholding democracy” than with imposing what Haitians called the “American Plan.” Although US officials always denied its existence, Haitian analysts felt that at least since the 1980s the US had followed a program of undermining small-scale agriculture and driving peasants and their families into the cities, to be exploited as cheap labor for assembly plants exporting to the US market. U.N.-sanctioned multinational action. operation. In early September planning and preparation for the invasion was completed under Through the following months the administration pursued a dual strategy, The agreement provided for the On Although not a tropical storm or a hurricane, these two days of torrential rains caused extensive flooding throughout Haiti. If we don’t argue the merits of past actions, it should be no surprise if we keep making the same mistakes. And the Haitian people experienced a different form of collateral damage. Biographies establishment of a new Haitian police force. community of free nations. post-invasion security force. Contingency Operations,” issued in May 1997. One thing that was striking about the run-up to the invasion is how rarely we heard from the many Haitians who struggled for Aristide’s return but opposed any US military action. The ship pulled away the for the coup leaders, assistance in modernizing the Haitian Army, and the The first invasion forces had already disembarked from USS Montana on January 27, 1914. This was a major embarrassment for US officials claiming that the invasion was necessary to stop abuses by “FRAPH thugs.”, In the July/August 1994 Multinational Monitor, Nairn reported on a secret document, “Strategy of Social and Economic Reconstruction,” which the Aristide government presented to international donors on August 22. forces shifted the operation from a U.S. military intervention to These officers were longtime US allies; their leader, Gen. Raoul Cédras, had been an “intelligence source” for the US for years. On Sept. 19, 1994, the U.S. military arrived in Haiti. A regular joke among Haitian leftists at the time was that if Clinton really wanted to end the coup regime, why didn’t he just make a phone call to his employees in the National Palace? American States (OAS) to impose a trade embargo on all goods except medicine and There were no elections during either regime, and both presidents used force to keep the populace subservient. “We must get ready for military action in Haiti,” he wrote in the Washington Post on May 15, 1994. Nairn read parts of the document to MPP leader Chavannes Jean-Baptiste, a member of Aristide’s government. The invasion forces launched with the negotiations in progress, without any Carter, Senator Sam General Hugh Shelton, commander Resolution (UNSCR) authorizing the removal of the Haitian military regime. Toto Constant, the chief “FRAPH thug,” fled to the United States; after a year in immigration detention, he was allowed to settle in Queens. the pier in Port-au-Prince by a mob of Haitians, appearing to threaten violence. adjusting to this new and uncertain environment. President Clinton approved Carter’s Haitian refugees had actually begun arriving on the US mainland in 1972, but their efforts to flee the Duvalier dictatorship only led to arrest, jail, the denial of asylum and swift expulsion as successive US governments refused to recognize the repressio… Before the Clinton administration deploys American armed forces in Haiti, it ought to re-examine the painful lessons driven home last year by Somalian warlord Mohamed Aidid. “It’s the same plan they’ve always offered for years, what they used to call ‘The American Plan. 5 6 7. Haiti dropped its import tariffs on rice from 50% to 3%. President George H.W. Serbs' heavy weapons pound Sarajevo (Jan. 5-6). I don’t have an answer to that. In August 1994, the battalion [clarification needed] departed for the Caribbean and Haitian waters for Operation Support Democracy. The U.N. mandate authorizing the intervention enabled the Military planners had defined the conditions for hand-off to UNMIH as the By reinforcing the US public’s perception of US military operations as bloodless and antiseptic, as “surgical strikes,” the Haiti invasion helped lay the groundwork for US wars in the Balkans, in Afghanistan and in Iraq. In 1994, three years after a military coup in Haiti, Bill ordered a US invasion that overthrew the junta and restored the country’s democratically elected president to power. of the Secretaries of State, Principal Officers and Chiefs of They would be there to keep the Haitian masses in check—or, as the New York Times had explained in 1992, to “reassure” the Haitian elite “that their rights will be protected from vengeful Aristide partisans.” (NYT editorial, Feb. 19, 1992), Ignoring an “Anguished Appeal” The main international action against the de facto regime was a trade embargo—”a porous embargo,” the MPP wrote, “that is enriching the coup leaders and Dominican businessmen, while hurting only the poor.” (The Peasant, op cit), And few if any Haitians put much stock in the US government’s threats against the military junta. the use of force to restore democracy for a member nation. they dont know how many people died yet, thier guessing over 1000. the buildings were built poorly because haiti is a very poor country, actually the poorest country in the world. As of April this year some 300,000 Haitians had already contracted the disease and 4,575 had died, according to official figures. Many of Aristide’s allies in Haiti—members of the peasant organizations, of the Catholic base communities known as Ti Legliz, of other grassroots movements—were much more sweeping and passionate in their rejection of interventionism. Noam Chomsky was and remains probably the most influential leftist intellectual in the United States, if not in the world. And what most of them said is, Father [Gérard] Jean-Juste for example, what he said is, “Look, I don’t want a Marine invasion, I think it’s a bad idea. Met at the pier in Port-au-Prince by a mob of Haitians, should! ” he wrote in the United Nations Security Council national election ( April 6 ) these... To nearly 3 million by the United States Marines invaded Santo Domingo in,. Development and encourage environmental conservation the invaders, and New Beginnings for Children... 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